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Safe packaging of hazardous chemicals (Part 2)

International Regulations on safe packaging

L, the danger of chemicals

the degree of danger of chemicals is divided into five levels, represented by the number 0^4. The larger the number, the higher the level, the greater the danger. The classification criteria are as follows:

(1) human hazard

4 - refers to substances that can kill or cause serious residual injury even if they are immediately treated with medical treatment as long as they are in short contact

3 - refers to substances that can cause serious temporary or residual health hazards even if they are treated immediately as long as they are exposed for a short time

2 - substances that will cause temporary loss of function or possible residual injury in case of strong or continuous contact, unless medical treatment is given immediately

l - substances that cause slight irritation but only small residual damage when exposed, even if no treatment is given:

0 - substances that cause less harm to human body than ordinary combustible substances when exposed under fire conditions

(2) flammability

4 - refers to substances that are rapidly or completely vaporized under atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or substances that are easy to diffuse in the air and easy to burn

3 - liquids and solids that can ignite at almost all ambient temperatures:

2 - refers to substances that must be properly heated or exposed to high ambient temperatures before combustion occurs

1 - substances that can burn only after preheating:

0 - refers to non combustible substances

(3) reactivity

4 - substances that are easy to detonate or explode, decompose or react under normal temperature and pressure

3 - refers to substances that can detonate or explode, but need a strong detonating source or have an explosive reaction when heated or exposed to water in a confined space before detonation:

2 - refers to substances that are unstable and easy to cause violent chemical reactions, but will not deflagration. It also includes substances that can react violently with water or may form potentially explosive mixtures with water

1 - refers to substances that are stable in themselves, but can become unstable under high temperature and high pressure, or may react with water to release energy, but are not violent

0 refers to substances that are stable and do not react with water under normal conditions, even when in contact with flame

2、 International regulations

International Regulations on the safe packaging of hazardous chemicals mainly include:

(1) the recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods of the United Nations Committee of experts on the transport of dangerous goods; (2) the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Rules for the transport of dangerous goods by sea; (3) the EU Directive on the classification, packaging and marking of dangerous substances (92/32/EEC) 。 The United Nations classification system has been widely adopted internationally. Established in 1958 and changed to the current name in 1977, the requirements of the International Maritime Organization's dangerous code are basically consistent with those of the United Nations, but it has made a little supplementary modification according to the special requirements of maritime transportation. The EU directive is widely adopted in EU Member States, and it is also applicable to the export of chemicals and dangerous substances to EU countries.

first, in general, international chemicals are best packaged in original packaging. Changes in some substances, such as organic peroxide packaging materials, may bring great dangers. In addition, international chemicals generally need sealed packaging or airtight packaging, because: ① the dissipation of substances (such as volatilization, spillage) Always do not want to happen; ② The exposed packaging may cause pollution, and there is a risk of a desirable reaction. If so, wait

3. Special packaging

this packaging refers to the need for special packaging materials that are not described in general knowledge. For example, people who often deal with chemicals are familiar with acid, alkali and aqueous solutions that corrode ordinary steel and many other metals, and understand that many plastics are not suitable for containing organic solvents or liquids. Suppliers can usually make suggestions on the selection of appropriate packaging materials

4. Shatterproof packaging

shatterproof packaging is the packaging that is not easy to break. Put the fragile packaging in a closed container that is not easy to break, which is suitable for extremely dangerous substances. Use non fragile packaging to provide greater protection for fragile packaging and ensure safety. In addition, use closed containers when crushing

5. Packaging label

see the United Nations dangerous goods packaging label plate for the international chemical safety packaging label. EU regulations: the chemical safety packaging uses the hazard symbol, R mark and s mark. In EU countries, the most important "dangerous symbols" for mankind must be marked on the chemical packaging. The meaning of these symbols is related to the "special risk nature (r mark)" of hazardous substances and the "suggestions for safe use (s mark)" of hazardous chemicals. Danger symbols shall be printed in bold on the orange red background. The meanings of various symbols are as follows: e symbol: explosive substances; 0 symbol: oxidizing articles; F symbol: highly inflammable goods; F+ symbol: extremely flammable; T symbol: toxic substances: t+ symbol and extremely toxic substances; C symbol: corrosive articles; Xi symbol: irritant article I xn symbol: at any time; N symbol: Environmental dangerous goods. In addition to the above symbols, the R mark and s mark are also marked on the identification card according to the standards formulated by the European Union. Sometimes it is also marked with "mark a", "mark B (Mark C, mark D, Mark E or mark f)"

in the special mark, the R mark represents thenatureof special risks produced in the use of chemical substances. The s mark indicates the recommended safety precautions. This special mark consists of a letter (R or s) and a series of numbers. The number after the letter indicates the specific type, and the "one" hyphen between the letters and numbers indicates the separate description of special risk (R) or safety precautions (s). The "/" slash symbol between letters and numbers indicates a comprehensive description of special risks (R) or safety precautions in one sentence. For example, R7 means that it may cause a fire; R20 means harmful by inhalation; R45 indicates possible cancer: R20/21 indicates harmful when inhaled and in contact with skin; S2 indicates to avoid children's contact; S7 indicates that it should be stored in closed packaging containers; SL/2 means to lock and keep away from children: $20/21 do not eat, drink or smoke during operation (handling)

the United Nations' safe packaging level for chemicals

the United Nations divides hazardous chemicals into 9 categories: Category 1 is explosives, Category 2 refers to gases (including flammable gases, [Category 3 refers to flammable liquids (high, medium and low flash points), category 4 refers to flammable solids, category 5 refers to oxidants and peroxides, category 6 refers to drugs and infectious substances, category 7 refers to radioactive substances, category 8 refers to corrosive substances, and category 9 refers to miscellaneous dangerous goods. [the UN packaging level of chemicals in international trade is generally based on the UN recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods And the International Maritime Organization (IMO) International Code for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea and other regulations, except for special provisions in category L (explosives), category 2 (compressed gases and liquefied gases), category 5 (organic peroxides), category 6 (infectious substances) and category 7 (radioactive substances), the packaging of other types of chemical substances is divided into three levels according to the risk. The packaging with high risk is level I, the packaging with medium risk is level II, and the packaging with low risk is level I and II. There are corresponding criteria for the division of each level. For example, the criteria for determining the packaging level of toxic chemicals are as follows (LD50, mg/kg):

level I packaging: five outer packaging boxes, skin contact toxicity ≤ 40; Inhalation toxicity ≤ 0.5:

grade II packaging: oral toxicity 5 ~ 50; Skin contact toxicity 40 ~ 200: inhalation toxicity 0.5 ~ 2:

grade III packaging: oral toxicity 50 ~ 200; Skin contact toxicity 200 ~ 1000 pin inhalation toxicity 2 ~ 10

it should be noted that China's new regulations on the safety management of hazardous chemicals (6. The people's Republic of China. Temperature, humidity and other external environments also have an impact on instrument measurement, order No. 344 of the State Council) and regulations such as the measures for the production and management of packaging containers for hazardous chemicals are equivalent to regulations such as the United Nations' proposal for the transport of dangerous goods and the International Maritime Organization's international code for the transport of dangerous goods by sea. (the international chemical safety packaging of the United Nations and international organizations emphasizes the impact on the earth's ecological environment, especially the ecotoxicity and ecological accumulation of chemicals, especially the bioaccumulation in the human food chain, as well as the protection of various animals and plants, especially the principles of the recycling, disposal and abandonment of these chemical packaging wastes, as well as scientific calculation methods, etc.

in short, in commemoration of China's new At the third anniversary of the implementation of the regulations on the safety management of hazardous chemicals, on the basis of certain achievements in China's international chemical packaging, we still need to strengthen the study of relevant regulations, constantly improve and improve the packaging technology, improve the packaging quality of international chemicals, and make our contribution to green packaging, but not all experimental machines are suitable for flexible packaging materials and environmental protection

we should remember that there is only one earth for mankind! If we want to live a safe and beautiful life, we must protect the living environment of human society and pay attention to our packaging safety

information source: China's packaging industry

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